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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

估计当高盛公布自己2009年的奖金规模时,美国国会和媒体又会气得抓狂。但这些怨气终将只是过眼云烟,改变不了什么。所谓“高盛招人恨”的故事实在是拖得太长了。

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单词lace 联想记忆:
10. Computer systems analyst
单词complex 联想记忆:

《权力的游戏》不仅是秋季剧中下载次数最多的美剧,还是全年美剧下载之王。数据统计,使用非法下载方式来观看这部剧的人比用电视看的人还要多得多。
大多数观察家认为去年五月首飞的单过道C919就是图中这架飞机。尽管这是一项突破性进展,但它并不能完全代表中国航空工业的发展。其他两个例子更有说服力。
埃尔多安发表上述言论之际,距荷兰大选投票已不足24个小时——反伊斯兰候选人海尔特?维尔德斯(Geert Wilders)引发的围绕伊斯兰在荷兰社会中角色的热烈辩论,让本次大选变得格外有看头。维尔德斯的自由党(PVV)目前在民调中排名第二。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

东莞家具业老板跑路成风

11. “The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution” (Stanley Nelson)
为什么这么说呢?只需想想最高法院对同性婚姻问题做出裁决之后人们越来越强烈的怒火,想想人们围绕堕胎、奥巴马医改、枪支管制、食品券、共和党州长新推的选民压制等问题越来越强烈的怒火,另外还有保守派和茶党顽固不化,力争推翻一切立法并加强财政紧缩。
Yes Man is a heartwarming blockbuster that explores what would happen if you answered "yes" to every question in your life. Jim Carrey's character takes on this challenge and ends up learning Korean, taking flying lessons, and getting promoted. He goes from being a pessimistic divorced man to an exciting trendsetter and finds a new girlfriend in the process. It might sound like fiction, but this movie is loosely based on a memoir of the same name by freelance radio producer Danny Wallace.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Harvey C Mansfield, one of Harvard's most outspoken conservative professors and the author of a book called Manliness, also told the Guardian he questioned the decision. "The bounds of what is offensive have been extended and distorted, and I no longer trust the bent judgment of politically correct enforcers."
The piece was taken away for laboratory testing, and the Spielman family only received a phone call this month telling them the amulet had been identified.
trade贸易,mark记号:商标

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Manal al-Sharif is best known for challenging laws and mores that keep women down in her native country.
  • 家居建材行业发展新趋势:让实力说话
  • Allianz
  • 维护资金安全是关键 橱柜企业扩张需“蓄水”
  • 深圳人成惠州楼市主要购买力 成交量同比涨一倍
  • 2012年,谷歌发明了谷歌眼镜,一台你能戴在你脸上的电脑。在街上行走或者进行每天的任务的时候戴着它,可以同步看一些覆盖在眼镜上的日程会议,短信及地铁警戒等信息。戴着它行走的时候,可以用它们打视频电话,甚至把直播视频上传到网络,这一切都不需要动手。谷歌眼镜可能挺酷的,挺新颖,还有创新性,但是它绝对不是第一副可佩戴的电脑眼镜。
    As China's economic structure evolves, the rich list also is changing.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 专家:房企见机涨价不可取 以价换量才是正道, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

郑州小区业主被通知搬离:开发商拖欠2千万工程款

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

新政和旺季等多因素叠加 4月份房价环比略涨

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Kate Winslet is another Brit who’s opted for the loo for her best actress Academy Award, which she was awarded for her complex role as a concentration camp guard in the 2008 adaptation of Bernhard Schlink’s novel, The Reader.
    9. Meghalaya, India-"Meghalaya won't stay this quiet for long; go before thrill seekers storm the Khasi Hills," advises Lonely Planet. Pictured is Nohkalikai Falls, India's tallest plunge waterfall at 340 meters.
  • 2017年,衡量工业品出厂价格、反映经济活力的主要指标--生产者物价指数(PPI)上涨6.3%,结束了自2012年以来的连续下降态势。2016年PPI下降1.4%。
    4.虚拟助理:增长了17.6%
    The renewal of the 70-year term of land-use rights by urban-dwelling owners will be no problem. No application needs to be filed, there will be no preset conditions and it will not affect any deal being made over the property.
    vt. (烹饪时把鱼
    Sixty Vocab:

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 多足鼎立 2013年郑州建材卖场竞争惨烈
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 前8月50大城市累计卖地突破2.47万亿 同比上涨28%

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

3.《初恋50次》
与此同时,达洛伊西奥开始环游世界,到处参加会议,并结识其他潜在的投资人。他给每一位结识的人都留下极深的印象。温布尔顿国王学院中学(King’s College School)的校长安德鲁?霍尔斯(Andrew Halls)评价道,他成熟得可怕,他在各种状况下仍保持着清晰的思维,这令我这个54岁的人都觉得惊讶。
该护符只有21毫米长、16毫米高、4毫米厚,部分已经缺失。上方凸起的部分有个孔,可以用绳穿起来挂在脖子上。
recept接受+ive表形容词→善于接受的
My arms are wide open for you this New Year.我张开双臂,盼与你共度新春佳节。
Lufax, which started four years ago has emerged as the leader due to innovative credit rating techniques.
LeBron is invulnerable to age

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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  • 新一线城市作梯消解房地产泡沫 让经济再飞20年
  • 2013年,勇士队曾在中国与洛杉矶湖人队打过季前赛,而森林狼队则是首次来华。
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  • 互联网时代 家居卖场陷销售分水岭
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 小编碎碎念:华裔球员林书豪的一夜爆红,让因病缺阵的尼克斯当家球星小甜瓜安东尼颇有几分“躺着也中枪”的无辜感。
    你有翻白眼的习惯吗?握手时有气无力?不爱进行眼神交流?这些可谓是职业杀手。人们必须意识到行动大于言语,大部分的沟通是通过非语言暗示完成的。你的一些非语言习惯可能会被认为是不礼貌的,不专业的—而这些最终会严重影响你的职业发展。
  • Fereston recalls when writer Jennifer Crittenden stopped him in the hallway after filming and asked him, 'Are you sure about this? Are you sure you're not ruining Julia Louis-Dreyfus' career?' Considering Dreyfus won an Emmy that same year, it's safe to say the dance was a good career move for the actress. And now to reminisce, here is Elaine doing her famous "Elaine Dance."
    compromise
  • 尤塞恩?博尔特是搜索次数最多的非英国籍奥运会选手。
    On Tuesday Saarland became the first German region to ban campaigning by foreign politicians. Several German local councils had called off planned Turkish ministers’ campaign meetings on technical grounds, such as fire safety.
  • 然后,事情峰回路转。库迪斯和沃斯发现,荷兰贷款机构对于Seppenwolde的倒闭做出的反应截然不同。那些曾经贷款给Seppenwolde、但一毛钱也没损失的贷款机构变得越发悲观,要求所有新借款人都提供更多的“折幅”。而那些从未贷款给Seppenwolde、因而躲过一劫的贷款机构则根本没有提高要求。事实上,这些贷款机构可能还略略降低了对借款人的“折幅”要求,至少表明他们和过去一样乐观。
    墓地主人的身份依然是个迷。这座墓地曾经被盗过,而且墓地中没有任何的文字记录来表明这些死者的名字以及他们的职位。
    3.The End of the One-Child Policy
  • 8.Suicide Squad
    The drama and the original game have a large fan base and enjoy great popularity in China, and even elsewhere in Asia.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 中央喊话去库存 十三五开局之年要不要买房? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

地价涨幅26个月来首次低于房价涨幅 土地购置现分化

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

曹德旺发声:纽约时报目的何在 国内标题党让我惊讶

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

多名房东疑被“套路贷”遭起诉 易贷网10亿“租金贴现”局

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

黑中介半夜砸门敲诈租客每人2万 女子惊吓过度流产

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • n. 监牢,监狱,拘留所
  • Are there any differencesbetween writing a light novel and writing an anime?
  • 揭秘2016年佛山照明的发展之路:如何跻身“世界前三甲”?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • “十二五”期间,中国累计实际使用外资预计达到6200亿美元,第三产业实际利用外资占比提高到60%以上。同期中国对外直接投资年均增长14.2%。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 连续4年以来,排行榜前5名的位置都被相同的五个跨洲EMBA项目所占据。Tiemba项目今年能够荣登榜首,不是因为它比竞争对手表现得异常优秀,而是得益于在大多数指标上的强劲表现。尤其是,该项目学员的平均薪资(32.4万美元)排名第二,仅次于凯洛格-香港科大(Kellogg-HKUST)EMBA项目的学员(40.8万美元)。Tiemba项目在职业晋升方面也位居第二,在工作经验方面排名第四。
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    Release date: 2015
  • GoldSeek.com的这个标题发出了红色警报。在评估另外20名专家跟踪的20种周期之后,它总结道:“很多周期表明股市的调整或崩溃已经临近……未雨绸缪是很重要的。在‘窗口’关闭之前,你仍有一些时间!”

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 时报影评人曼诺拉·达吉斯(Manohla Dargis)与A·O·斯科特(A. O. Scott)分享他们挑选的年度最佳电影。
  • 国内小间距LED市场规模有望达15.6亿
  • Wishing you all the happiness of the holiday season.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 陶瓷行业到底有没有拖国民经济后腿
  • Household substance abuse
  • 广州市花都区发布治违通告:违建不得交易和出租
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

江浙民间投资反转 房地产加剧经济大省内部分化

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 雷曼股份拟7.8亿收购华视新文化 拓展体育传媒资源
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 国家统计局:5月CPI同比增长1.8% 居住价格同比上涨2.2%
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

WHAT: A Greek Revival with four bedrooms and four and a half bathrooms

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

中国国家统计局(NBS)数据显示,今年10月中国工业生产者出厂价格指数(PPI)同比上涨1.2%,这是该指数连续第二个月同比上涨,此前53个月的下跌最终是在今年9月画上句号的。
上月,在全国70个大中城市中,新建商品住宅价格环比上涨的有55个,价格持平的有4个,价格下跌的有11个。环比下跌的城市包括深圳(下跌0.3%)、杭州(下跌0.4%)和厦门(下跌0.2%)。
这将是一部非常有趣的电影,刻画出了美国队长与钢铁侠之间微妙的关系, 两人经常陷入信任危机。
当瑞秋·布鲁姆听闻自己赢得喜剧类电视最佳女主角奖项时,喜极而泣。亚马逊节目《丛林中的莫扎特》也意外斩获最佳剧集奖项。
DiCaprio received a pat on the back from producer Harvey Weinstein and a standing ovation from the crowd as he collected the award for best actor in a drama for The Revenant.
据中国保监会(Insurance Regulatory Commission)公布数字,上半年利润总额1055.86亿元人民币(合159亿美元),同比减少1241.99亿元人民币,下降54.05%。
厌倦了一成不变的生活?何不去探险,让身心重新焕发活力?毫无疑问,南极洲会是个好去处。亲眼目睹企鹅嬉戏,成群结队的海鸟飞过天空,要比观看电视纪录片更令人兴奋。想象一下,置身于雄伟冰山和原生态山脉构成的世界中,是多么刺激和美好的一件事啊!但要注意的是,南极洲地处极地,因此行前要做好充足准备。保暖靴、防寒外套、手套、羊毛袜和帽子一样都不能少。
“It suggests that people put more weight on what happened to themselves and less weight on other information that might be available,”Koudijs says. The more personally removed people are from an important event, the less it is to affect their appetite for risk.
基因疗法发展良好。
Over the past three years, drawing conclusions about China's box office growth has been complicated by Beijing's decision to include new service fees in official revenue totals.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

企业仍需跑量去库存 楼市已站上“风口”

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Brain death is a bit of an inconvenience if you're a fan of living, and if you're looking to replace yours with a spare, you're out of luck. Sure, maybe we'll one day be able to plant brains into skulls, but the brain's not just another organ. It contains all your thoughts and memories. They can plop a new brain in your head, but you'll still be gone, so the idea of making artificial brains may seem absurd.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 桑尼伯恩和他的父母以及11岁的妹妹朱莉娅住在佛蒙特州的布里斯托尔,他正在寻求民主党的提名。
  • 多地光伏项目弃电高达七成 新能源消纳能力不足
  • the Dutch lender that is a leading financier to farmers and agribusinesses around the world.
  • 东方雨虹携手阿里巴巴或宣告建材行业大数据营销时代的到来
  • 6.癌症死亡率

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 扶养独居老人者可适当继承遗产
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 但是,当今年12月WTO成员国聚集在布宜诺斯艾利斯召开两年一度的部长级会议时,我们将一尝世界新秩序的味道。一如既往的是,目前尚不清楚WTO此次能否产生一些实质性内容。但真正的考验在于,WTO有史以来第一次不由美国牵头讨论。中国或欧盟会取而代之吗?印度会像过去一样一心阻挠任何协议吗?
  • “Even though there is significant awareness [of the role of Fed policy], market dynamics can become unstable or unfavourable relatively easily,” he says. “Then you get into a self-reinforcing cycle of selling pressure.”

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

家居销售下半年市场比上半年艰难

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