Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 陶企抽检被判不合格 可向国家相关部门投诉.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
By the time of the Asian crisis of 1997-98, he says, the Fed had become more responsive and pulled back from its tightening cycle on concern that the turmoil in Southeast Asia would affect the US economy.
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
Recipient: His Royal Highness Prince Harry
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China had a full-year GDP target of “around 6.5 per cent” for 2017.
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The fear was over downward mobility and cultural changes; the anger was against immigrants and indifferent elites.
圣保罗报的民意调查是基于在贝洛奥里藏特（Belo Horizonte）的米内朗球场（ Mineirao）对693名球迷进行的采访，统计误差为4%左右。
The London school’s MBA is ranked first in Europe, its EMBA programme, delivered jointly with Columbia Business School in the US, is ranked third and its MiM programme is in the top 10 on its first participation. The MiM ranking was the last missing piece for LBS to come first in Europe.
The study is available online.